El Nio /l ninjo/ (Spanish pronunciation: [el nio]) is the warm phase of the El Nio Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific In general, the effect of El Nio on California is increased rainfall with accompanying floods, landslides, and coastal erosion. The effects are variable across the state and are more predictable in Southern California. Zimbabwe is one of the many countries feeling the strain of El Nino, which has dried up rainfall across southern Africa over the last year, killing crops, disrupting hydro power production and forcing local water authorities to enforce stringent water rationing in some areas. El Nio could have dramatic consequences for southern Africa. Food shortage, famine, unrest, economic hardship and further decrease of the gross national product. Hopefully the region will not be hit as hard as it was in the 1997-98 El Nio effect. El Nino can have impacts on weather at various locations around the globe. Off the east coast of southern Africa, drought conditions often occur. In countries such as Zimbabwe, the effects of drought can be devastating. Effects of El nino on small holder farmers and rural communities in Gutu, Masvingo Province southern part of Zimbabwe, Sub Saharan Africa, February 2016. Unusually strong El Nio, coupled with record-high temperatures, has had a catastrophic effect on crops and rainfall across southern and eastern Africa. In El Nino seasons, during October-December, drier than average conditions affect mostly the border areas of NE South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe as well as southern Madagascar. Similar conditions affect SW South Africa though rainfall amounts are small. How does ENSO affect South Africa?Although the southern part of Africa generally receives below-normal rainfall during El Nino years and La Nina usually brings normal or above-normal rainfall, it cannot be accepted as a rule. "Governments are responding with available resources, but this is an unprecedented situation. Childrens survival is dependent on action taken today," she added. El Nio will have a devastating effect on southern Africas harvests and food security in 2016. Countries across East Africa are facing devastating effects of the El Nino weather phenomenon.Southern Africa has also not been spared with output of the staple maize crop cut by nearly half.
[Read: Overview of El Nio response in East and Southern Africa, 1 December 2016].The effects on the sectors of health, nutrition, protection, education and water and sanitation are likely to continue to grow throughout the year. "Although the southern part of Africa generally receives below-normal rainfall during El Nino years and La Nina usually brings normal or above-normal rainfall, it cannot be accepted as a rule. Nairobi - More than 30 million people are reportedly said to be affected by El Nino in southern Africa, with maize output having dropped by 30 in South Africa alone, IRIN News reports. Steadily gaining strength since March year, this years El Nino proves to have even more devastating effects in its Southern Africa is in for a bumpy, dry ride. There is a 50 chance of a drought occurring this summer that could have an impact on the whole region which still bears the effect of last years drought. Any new drought will have a compounding effect.
Given our interest in analyzing the macroeconomic effects of El Nio shocks, we need to include the Southern Oscillation index anomalies (SOIt) in our framework.Looking beyond the Asia and Pacic region, South Africa also experiences hot and dry summers during an El Nio episode (Figure 3) Wondering about El Nino effects? While El Nino begins in the eastern portion of the Pacific Ocean (western coasts of North and South America), it eventually affects the entire world.An El Nino event will bring wetter than normal conditions to much of Africa including Kenya. 15. In Southern Africa, El Nio is associated with a late start of season, rainfall deficits, and poor distribution mostly leading to significant dry spells.22. In addition to the direct impacts associated with El Nio on food production, an El Nio event generates a number of secondary effects on the Dry weather in southern Africa has reduced agricultural production and left 28 million people hungry. Scientists have blamed the lack of rainfall on El Nino weather conditions. El Nino results. from unusually warm water along the western coast of South America.
About 14 million people face hunger in Southern Africa because of a drought that has been exacerbated by El Nino, says the UnitedSalt pans and dams are scattered across drought effected farmland in South Australia, November 12, 2015. A pioneering Australian scheme to improve the On 16 March 2016, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) declared a regional drought disaster with Zimbabwe, Lesotho and Swaziland in the grip of theWhile South Africa had better response plans in place, the country hasnt escaped the eects of El Nio. Impact on inflation. The consequences of the El Nio phenomenon have resulted in successive droughts and floods affecting many countries, especially those in the Horn of Africa and Southern Africa, noted the UNOCHA representative. According to Commissioner Abdullahi, the climatic effects observed in the The El Nio phenomenon affects rainfall patterns and temperatures in many parts of the globe, most intensely in the tropics with significantHeavy rains during October-December in the southern Horn and eastern equatorial Africa (with continued effects ex-pected in the first quarter 2016). El Nios effects on Europe are not entirely clear, but it is not nearly as affected as at least large parts of other continents.La Nia results in wetter-than-normal conditions in Southern Africa from December to February, and drier-than-normal conditions over equatorial East Africa over the same El nio/southern oscillation (ENSO)diagnostic discussion.Adios El Nio, Hello La Nia? La Nina blamed for weather upset. NASA satellites capture a stronger La Nina. South Africa. northern South America, while above average rainfall occurs in southeastern South America, eastern equatorial Africa, and the southern United States..El Nios effects on Europe are controversial, complex and difficult to analyse, as it is one of several factors that influence the weather El Nio is a rise in oceanic temperatures in the South Pacific that affects weather patterns across the globe and results in a reduction in rainfall in Southern Africa.The head of the Agricultural Business Chamber, John Purchase, told Africa Check that currently effects on agriculture can be seen in the Southern Africa has been struggling with an intense drought that has expanded and strengthened since the earliest stages of the 2015/16 agricultural season, driven by one of the strongest El Nio events of the last 50 years. The effects on food security and livelihoods have been exacerbated by Dry weather in southern Africa has reduced agricultural production and left 28 million people hungry. Scientists have blamed the lack of rainfall on El Nino weather conditions. El Nino results from unusually warm water along the western coast of South America. Unicef said severe flooding was also expected in neighbouring Somalia, where more than three million people were in need of aid as the effects of El Nino were already being felt.In southern Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi and South Africa have been hit by a drought. El Nio affects marine fisheries, particularly in the eastern Pacific Ocean where it tends to radically lower the ocean primary production.For instance, 1957/58 or 1977/78 had virtually no effect in Southern Africa. Effects of El Nino. The warmer waters had a devastating effect on marine life existing off the coast of Peru and Ecuador.Severe droughts occur in Australia, Indonesia, India and southern Africa. Beyond southern Africa, GIEWS analysis of El Nio-related conditions also points to agricultural stress in northern Australia, parts of Indonesia and a wide swathe of Central America and Brazil. El Nios effect is also being felt elsewhere in Africa JRC El Nio report: The 2015-2016 El Nio event: expected impact on food security and main response scenarios in East and Southern Africa. Commission press release: EU mobilises 125 million for countries affected by El Nio. LESOTHO -- El Nio is scorching the earth in southern and eastern Africa, where recently there has been little to no rain. The United Nations says a million children are at risk of starvation, and many are in the tiny nation of Lesotho. "El Nio-southern oscillation effects on maize production in South Africa: A preliminary methodology study.""The relationship of the El Nino-Southern oscillation to African rainfall." International Journal of Climatology 17(2): 117-135. NOAA. And while South Africa was the only African country included in the analysis, its likely that the smaller, less economically-diversified agricultural economies of many African countries are more vulnerable to El Nios effects. El Nios effects on Europe are not entirely clear, but certainly it is not nearly as affected as at least large parts of other continents.La Nia results in wetter than normal conditions in Southern Africa from December to February, and drier than normal conditions over equatorial East Africa over the El Nio Information - California Department of Fish and - A strong El Nio is often associated with flooding rains and warm weather in Peru, drought in Indonesia, Africa, and Australia, torrential downpours and mudslides in .El Nino Effects On the Land. El Nino and La Nina. El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO commonly referred to as simply El Nio) is a global coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon. The Pacific ocean signatures, El Nio and La Nia are important temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. This see-saw between El Nio and La Nia is known as the Southern Oscillation (referred to as ENSO - El Nio Southern Oscillation), and is ato have an effect on the eastern, summer rainfall parts of South Africa, with some correlation between El Nio and drier than normal conditions over this region. While the effects of El Nio have had dire effects on jobs and income for farmers in East and southern Africa, another offshoot of the shortages has been a spike in grain prices. — More than 30 million people are reportedly said to be affected by El Nino in southern Africa, with maize output having dropped by 30 percent in South Africa alone, IRIN News reports. Steadily gaining strength since March year, this years El Nino proves to have even more devastating effects in its Many in southern Africa remember the effects of the 1991/92 El Nio, which resulted in a devastating drought that threatened some 18 million people with famine. However, credible early warning, on-the-spot assessments, rapid regional response and El Nio affects the weather in large parts of the world. The effects depend strongly on the location and the season.In boreal winter the effects are most wide-spread: from southern Africa to eastern Russia and most of the Americas. A potentially record-breaking El Nio brewing in the tropical Pacific Ocean will soon hit southern Africa with Zimbabwe included. But a majority of communities are not sure how to prepare.For women and children the effects of El Nino will be overwhelming. South Africas weather service and global forecasters have predicted that El Nino will form again in the southern hemisphere winter or spring, which falls between July and September. Unicef said severe flooding was also expected in neighbouring Somalia, where more than three million people were in need of aid as the effects of El Nino were already being felt.In southern Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi and South Africa have been hit by a drought. Southern Africa has already been impacted by dry weather in 2015 and will likely continue to experience drier than normal conditions for the rest of the year.There are a couple major effects of El Nio on East Africa. East Africa is largely dependent on rain-fed agriculture making rural livelihoods and food security highly vulnerable to effects of El Nino.Overview of Potential Impact of El Nino on Southern Africa.